Aug 3, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. By Fred IN HIS LATEST BOOK, Fred Donner offers a provocative and comprehensive. Muhammad and the Believers has ratings and 33 reviews. Oldroses said: Back in Fred Donner is as captivating an author as he is a lecturer. This book is . Donner, Fred M. Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, xviii+

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Reading this book was not unlike reading donner physics textbook. Jul 09, Vika Gardner rated donnner it was amazing.

Yahudi dan Kristiani tidak ikut karena mereka enggan mengakui Muhammad sebagai rasul Allah. Now he was sent with a core force numbering around four thousand troops, including sizable contingents from the Najd, and more troops from the Sarat region and the Yemen. Incredibly repetitivelacking detail or citations. A glaring issue in this whole hypothesis however is how to account for the Qur’an’s several calumnies against Christians and Jews, if these same people were equal members of the Believers movement.

Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam

Instead, the archaeological record suggests that the area underwent a gradual process of social and cultural transformation that did not involve a violent and sudden destruction of urban or rural life at all. Realizing that most of Quraysh would not soon be won over, Muhammad began to preach his message at periodic markets outside Mecca in order to find other supporters. The other ‘pillars’ of Islam- fasting and pilgrimage- are not requirements for entering paradise in the Qur’an.

The mountainous districts of Lebanon and northern Syria were almost impenetrable and remained for decades untouched. Donner mengupas bagaimana awal Muhammad memulai gerakan ini, yg tujuannya mengembalikan umat kepada monoteisme dan sadar bahwa pagan adalah kesalahan.

In their capital at Clcsiphon in the south suburbs of modern Baghdadthe Sasanians constructed a large palace with a soaring throne room, an amazing feat of brick construction. I highly recommend this book to anyone who wants a thorough but not too dense overview of the early period of Islamic history. This taxonomy, banal as it seems, entails significant implications of our understanding- or rather misunderstanding- of early Islamic history. But the two sets of concerns are not mutu- ally exclusive.

Full text of “Muhammad and the Believers”

Secondly, places that did not resist were spared, and few places resisted once the weak Byzantine or Sassanian garrisons were defeated.

A Muslim- one who submits- could simultaneously be a Christian, Jew, Sabean or Hanafi Donner makes no mention of the last two, but we can infer this from the Qur’an itself, which lists all five as monotheists, subject to certain conditions.

In some cases the forces sent out by Abu Bakr were in the field for a year or even longer— something hitherto unknow n in Arabia— and therefore cannot be viewed as simple raiding parties along tradi- tional Arabian lines.


It is noteworthy that this army, unlike its predecessor, seems to have included few men of Thaqif; but even more remarkable is that it included contingents from some tribes that had not been loyal to Medina during the ridda.

Finally, I owe an unpayable debt to my wife, Carel Bertram, for her sage advice, love, and encourage- ment in everything I do, this book included. Particularly noteworthy were large communities of Jews in Iraq Babyloniawhich with its famous Jewish mjhammad was prob- ably the greatest center of Jewish life and learning in the world at this time.

Overall, a good read for anyone, really. By the late sixth century, the Muhamjad Empire was ripe for devastating onslaughts by the Sasanians— the final thee in the long series of Roman-Persian wars stretching back to the first century C. We can also assume, however, that the first arrival of the Believers in many areas may have been accompanied by widespread— though probably short-lived and superficial— plundering and raiding, of a kind that w’ould have been observed and reported by some early sources such as the sermons and homilies of Sophronius in the sbut that would also leave little archaeological record because major towns were not involved.

In northern Oman, they not only allied themselves with the local rulers, the Julandas, but estab- lished a more direct presence, appointing a Sasanian governor, with a permanent garrison of Sasanian troops based in Rustaq, to keep an eye on freed region of strategic and agricultural importance. In its early days, the community of Believers in Medina was still small; people still continued to belong to their traditional tribal and lineage groups but were now contracted to cooperate with one an- other in new ways.

These may have mhuammad descendants of Jewish migrants or refugees from Palestine or Babylonia, local converts, or an amalgam of both.

Mecca and Yathrib Medina The two towns where Muhammad spent his life, Mecca and Yathrib later usually called Medinawere about km mi apart from one another in the rugged region known as the Hijaz in western Arabia. Lewat penelitian yg ia lakukan, Donner menjelaskan dgn brilian asal-usul Islam.

Its objective was not to create a separate faith, but rather to spark a revival of pietistic monotheism. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.

Powerful nomadic groups such as Tamim, Asad, and Shayban, and settled tribes of Yemen such as Bajila, Azd, and Madhhij, became key sources of military recruits on whom Abu Bakr muhammmad his ruling group could rely when organizing future campaigns. Some suspended themselves for long periods from trees, secluded themselves in caves, or, like believerw famous St. Anr Abd al-Malik gaining eventual supermacy over the Empire by the defeat of al-Zubayr, and consolidation of the Marwannid brach of the Umayyad family as rulers of the empire, we see the inchoate emergence of Islam as we know it today.


According to tradition, it was during such a personal retreat, aroundthat Muhammad first began to receive revelations from God, carried to muhammadd by the archangel Gabriel. Well, this was true to some extent in the beginning and this became less relevant as time went on.

Another feature of Christianity in the Byzantine Near East— one that seems to have been shared by different Christian denominations— was an inclination toward asceticism.

Sep 08, Edith rated it really liked it Shelves: The notions that the prophet Muhammad died c.

Muhammad and the Believers

The upper coin resembles a typical Sasanian coin, with a portrait of Great King Khosro on the obverse and a fire temple flanked by two attendants on the reverse. Such battles, however, usually take place in open coun- try and leave no archaeological record. Whoever of you turns back from his religion and dies an unbeliever— their works in this world and the next are to no avail, and they are the companions of the fire, they shall be in abd eternally.

As an example, the Anr gives an anecdote of Jews turning into pigs and apes scholars have shown this to derive from a tale in wnd Talmudbut is this to mean all Jews are the descendants of these creatures as taught by some Imams this dayor is it an isolated case unrelated to the rest of the Jewish people?

It seems to be advising its hearers that leniency may, in certain cases, be more effective than brute force and that a range of policies is most effective in pursuing the one goal of univer- sal recognition of God. Feb 01, Jason S rated it really liked it. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. Some of these settlements or groups were tribute-paying former monotheists whom Muhammad had subjected, such as the Jewish residents of Khaybar or Wadi al-Qura, and some lived far from Muhaammad.

People from other tribes, particularly pastoral nomads who lived near Mecca, also joined its cult, sometimes bringing their own idols into rred shrine for safekeeping.

Muhammad took advantage of the with- drawal of the Meccan forces to turn against a second major Jewish group of Medina, the clan freed Nadir, reportedly because some of them had been plotting to kill Muhammad. But the lack of evidence of destruction in places most excavated, chiefly Syria, reveal no evidence of a mass conquest.