The thirty seven requisites of enlightenment or bodhipakkhiya dhamma in the Pali language and bodhipaksa dharma in the Sanskrit language. being one of the connotations of bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, as given in Chapter I. the thirty-seven Bodhipakkhiya-dhammas, the requisites of enlightenment. bodhipakkhiya-dhammā. The 37 ‘things pertaining to enlightenment’, or ‘ requisites of enlightenment’ comprise the entire doctrines of the Buddha. They are.
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Bodhipakkhiya dhamma in Theravada Buddhism.
Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma | Religion-wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
The thirty seven requisites of enlightenment or bodhipakkhiya dhamma in the Pali language and bodhipaksa dharma in the Sanskrit language are the requisites or qualities dhamma related pakkhiya to awakening or enlightenment rhamma in Buddhism. And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path.
In the Pasadika sutta of the Digha nikayaas a means of avoiding any disagreement or dispute about the teaching and referring to these 37 requisites, Buddha advised the disciples:. The 37 requisites of enlightenment are described in the following seven groups:. In the Satipatthana suttabefore describing the four foundations of mindfulness and their practical aspects and referring to the benefits of practising them, Buddha stated that:. That is the dhammma satipatthanas. Contemplation of the mind just as mind and dhakma as a phenomenon with no sense of mine, I or myself is to be bodhjpakkhiya by observing the following:.
Contemplation of mind objects just as mind objects with no sense of mine, I or myself is done on the following mind objects:. The unwholesome mental states that have not arisen yet refer to the five mental hindrances, or pancha nivarana, of sense desire kamacchanda ; ill will vyapada ; sloth and torpor thina middha ; restlessness and remorse uddaccha kukkuccha ; and sceptical doubt vicikicca.
The unwholesome mental states to be abandoned are the thoughts of sensual desire, hatred and cruelty while the wholesome mental states to be cultivated and maintained are the seven factors of enlightenment. Four bases of mental power: Iddhi means certain spiritual or mental powers and pada means bases. However, on the path of liberation they help to develop wholesome mental states and the supramundane knowledge pertaining to the eradication of mental defilements in order to attain Nibbana or final liberation.
Those who have undertaken the four bases for spiritual power have undertaken the noble path leading to the destruction of suffering. Bdohipakkhiya the two kinds of faith—blind faith amulika saddha and investigative faith akarawathi saddha dhmma is the investigative dhammaa that is considered here as a spiritual faculty.
Faith is essential for one dhama develop skilful mental qualities and engage in skilful activities like meditation to achieve spiritual progress.
When one attains the first noble stage of Stream Entry, Sotapannaone will bodhilakkhiya unshakable faith in the Triple Gem: Energy or effort is the persistence in avoiding unarisen unskilful mental qualities, abandoning arisen unskilful mental qualities, cultivating unarisen skilful mental qualities and maintaining arisen skilful mental qualities. Mindfulness is attained by contemplating on the body just as the body, feelings just as feelings, mind just as the mind and mind objects just as mind objects.
In the faculty of concentration, by choosing an appropriate meditation object and focusing attention on that, one develops deep states of concentration called dhyana. Through wisdom, one realises the suffering, cause of suffering, cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.
Among the five spiritual faculties, the faculties of faith and wisdom are paired together while effort and concentration are paired together in a reciprocal relationship.
There has to be a balance between faith and wisdom as well as between effort and concentration in order to facilitate spiritual progress. The faculty of mindfulness acts as the moderator to ensure that each pair maintains the correct balance without resorting to either extreme, which can adversely affect the spiritual development. If, for example, faith dominates over wisdom, the ability of analysis and investigation will weaken bodyipakkhiya should wisdom dominate over faith it will lead to doubt and uncertainty.
Similarly, if effort or energy dominates over concentration it will cause restlessness and agitation whereas when concentration dominates over effort it will cause sloth and torpor. As can be seen, the five spiritual faculties and the five spiritual powers are very similar in number and bidhipakkhiya. When the five spiritual faculties are developed and cultivated well they become firm, strong and powerful enough to oppose and control the factors that can oppose the five spiritual faculties.
As powers, faith controls doubt, energy controls laziness, mindfulness controls heedlessness, concentration controls distraction and wisdom controls ignorance. When faith becomes a power, boodhipakkhiya manifests as the four immeasurables, or brahma vihara, namely loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity.
When energy and concentration become powers, they lead to deep states of concentration, or Jh anaand when wisdom becomes a power it leads to the insight into the three universal characteristics of impermanence: Mindfulness becomes a power when one is able to develop mindfulness by contemplating on the body, feelings, mind and the mind objects.
Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma Foundation
Seven factors of enlightenment: They have also been described as qualities of a noble person or an enlightened person. Mindfulness, the first bodhipqkkhiya of enlightenment, means non-judgemental awareness from moment to moment bodhipaikhiya is also the 7 th factor of the Noble Eightfold Path. It is developed by contemplating on the body, feelings, the mind and the mind objects.
The second factor of investigation refers to the quality of mind that critically discriminates and investigates into the nature of mind and matter or mental and physical phenomena.
Through investigation, one gains an analytical knowledge of their true nature consisting of the three universal characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and absence of a self.
Well-developed mindfulness helps the process of critical investigation into the phenomena as they arise. The third factor of determined effort, energy, exertion, vigour or diligence is essential throughout the enlightenment process from beginning to end.
With determined effort, one acts to prevent the development of mental defilements—sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and remorse, and sceptical doubt—that have not yet arisen. Subsequently, effort is directed to abandon the unwholesome mental states that have already arisen by abandoning thoughts of sensual desire, hatred and cruelty. With determined effort, one also acts to cultivate unarisen wholesome mental states and to maintain the wholesome mental states that have already arisen.
Here, the wholesome mental states are the seven factors of enlightenment. There are three stages of effort required to accomplish a particular task from beginning to completion: The fourth factor of rapture or joy is the non-sensual niramisa happiness and satisfaction felt in the mind as well as the lightness and the waves of bliss felt in the body.
Five types or degrees of rapture have been described based on how strong and mature the mental development is: The fifth factor passaddhi of calm, serenity, quietness or tranquillity naturally follows joy or rapture and leads on to concentration.
It is of two types: The mental qualities that are quietened in kaya passaddhhi are the aggregates of feeling vedana ; perception sanna ; and the mental formations sankhara.
When tranquillity develops, the opposite factors of restlessness and remorse uddaccha kukkuccha are controlled. The sixth factor of concentration, which is calm one-pointedness of the mind focussed on a particular internal or external object, follows the factor of tranquillity while the other factors of faith, investigation, effort and joy are also conducive to the development of concentration.
In concentration meditation samatha bhavanathe main objective is to develop tranquillity and deep states of concentration Jha na by focusing attention exclusively on one of 40 meditation objects. There are three levels of concentration that one is able to attain in concentration meditation: As the concentration becomes stronger and deeper, the five mental hindrances of sensual desire ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and remorse, and sceptical doubt are gradually overcome.
There has to be a proper balance between the factors of effort and concentration in order to facilitate the development of concentration as an enlightenment factor. There are certain necessary factors that one needs to consider before one begins concentration meditation: The spiritual friend can help the meditator choose the right object for meditation and can also provide guidance and support.
The development of the seventh factor upekkha of equanimity or perfect neutrality is facilitated by the preceding six factors and is the mental quality of being non-reactive and neutral with a perfectly balanced mind in the face of experiences such as pleasure and pain.
Someone with well-developed equanimity, such as an Arahatwill not react to worldly experiences such as gain and loss, fame and ill repute, praise and blame or pleasure and pain.
Equanimity is the last of chamma four immeasurables brahma viharathe others being loving kindness, compassion and sympathetic joy.
Equanimity is also a factor dhammx with Jhana or deep meditative stages in concentration meditation.
The Noble Eightfold Path: From a practical standpoint, the eight factors above can be divided into three groups of practice:. The noble eightfold path is of two kinds: Right view is of two types: Mundane right view is having a correct understanding of the mechanism of volitional actions, or kammain which wholesome actions will lead to good results and unwholesome actions will lead damma bad results.
Supramundane right view is the correct understanding of the Four Noble Truths of suffering dukkhathe cause of suffering samudayacessation of suffering nirodha and the path leading to the cessation of suffering magga.
Right intention or right thought evolves as a result of right view and leads to the development of morality or sila. It has three aspects—the intention of renunciation, intention of good will and intention bodhipakohiya harmlessness—that are in opposition to the wrong intentions of greed, ill will and harmfulness.
From the Mahāparinibbāna sutta (DN 16):
Right speech has four aspects: Right action has three aspects: Right livelihood is the avoidance of five particular trades: Right effort provides necessary energy to develop the other seven factors, particularly the factor of right concentration that is necessary to develop right wisdom. It has four aspects: Right mindfulness is to be developed through the four foundations of mindfulness: When developed properly, the other seven factors of the path from right view to right mindfulness become supportive and requisite conditions for the development of right concentration.
Unlike the higher levels of concentration developed in other mundane situations in life, right concentration has to be wholesome and accompanied by the suppression of the mental hindrances.
With proper development and progress, right concentration will lead to deep meditative absorption states, or Jhana, and attainment of insight and wisdom.
Although 37 requisites of enlightenment have been described in Buddhist teachings, in actuality there are only fourteen different requisites since five requisites seem to appear repeatedly in the seven groups of requisites while the remaining nine qualities appear only once. Examples of this are as follows:. According to Buddhist teachings, the final goal is the attainment of Nibbana that has been described as a supramundane state of the highest bliss and eternal happiness devoid of the sufferings of birth, disease, old age, death, grief, lamentation and despair.
Any Buddhist disciple aspiring to attain them must invariably develop these 37 factors of enlightenment. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Four foundations of mindfulness: In the Satipatthana suttabefore describing the four foundations of mindfulness and their practical aspects and referring to the benefits of practising them, Buddha stated that: Mindfulness on in and out breathing: Cittanupassana Contemplation of the mind just as mind and just as a phenomenon with no sense of mine, I or myself is to be done by observing the following: A mind with greed or without greed; A mind with anger or without anger; A mind with delusion or without delusion; A lazy mind; A distracted mind; A developed or undeveloped mind; An inferior or superior mind; A concentrated or un-concentrated mind; and A mind free from defilements or not free from defilements.
Dhammanupassana Contemplation of mind objects just as mind objects with no sense of mine, I or myself is done on the following mind objects: Five mental hindrances or nivarana pabba: Four types of right effort: Examples of this are as follows: The requisite of effort appears nine times as the four types of effort; as effort in the four bases of power; as effort in the five spiritual faculties and powers; as effort in the seven factors of enlightenment; and as right effort in the Noble Eightfold Path.